One branch of computer science that applies the ideas of quantum theory is called quantum computing. The behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels is explained by quantum theory. In other words Quantum computing is a new approach to calculation that uses principles of fundamental physics to solve extremely complex problems very quickly.
Benefits of Quantum Computing
Even though quantum computing is still in its infancy and only a few companies such as Google, IBM and Microsoft are working on developing the technology, the potential for all industries is huge. What are the potential benefits of quantum computing?
Calculations made possible by quantum computing are performed tenfold quicker than on traditional computers. For instance, a quantum computer may complete difficult cryptographic algorithms like RSA or ECC in a matter of seconds, but traditional computers require years to do the same task. This has significant effects on how securely data is transmitted and stored.
In fields like logistics, finance, and material sciences, difficult optimization issues may be solved more quickly thanks to quantum computing. Let’s say a business wishes to streamline its supply chain in order to save expenses associated with transportation and expedite delivery. A quantum computer makes the optimal choices in real time by taking into account an enormous number of factors. Huge savings and efficiency improvements result from this.
Simulation of quantum systems
Quantum computers simulate quantum systems, which is useful for chemical research. After all, in chemical research, simulating molecules and quantum mechanical processes is extremely time-consuming. A quantum computer performs this efficiently, which speeds up the development of new drugs as scientists better understand the interactions between molecules.
Quantum computing speeds up the training of machine learning models, which is helpful in applications such as image recognition and speech processing. In practice, this means that applications such as image recognition are able to work faster and more accurately. This is particularly useful in areas such as medical imaging or automated quality assurance in manufacturing.
Because eavesdropping is detectable by quantum principles, safe encryption is made possible via quantum communication. The sharing of quantum-encrypted keys, which are incredibly safe against eavesdropping efforts since any interruption to the key is recognized instantly, is one example of this, known as quantum key distribution. This is a crucial role, especially for the financial sector.
when will quantum computers be ready
The next wave of computing technology is coming, quantum computing. The technology may finally reach its time for potential practical implementations, by 2030 or so.
– While hybrid classical-quantum would be mostly the best possible approach on the practical implementations, the availability of scalable universal quantum hardwares with millions of stable qubits will be the key to enable future innovations.
– In addition to quantum computing, there are more, like quantum communication and quantum sensing.
Quantum computing offers enormous potential for developments and problem-solving in many industries. However, currently, it has its limitations.
- Decoherence, or decay, can be caused by the slightest disturbance in the qubit environment. This results in the collapse of computations or errors to them. As noted above, a quantum computer must be protected from all external interference during the computing stage.
- Error correction during the computing stage hasn’t been perfected. That makes computations potentially unreliable. Since qubits aren’t digital bits of data, they can’t benefit from conventional error correction solutions used by classical computers.
- Retrieving computational results can corrupt the data. Developments such as a particular database search algorithm that ensures that the act of measurement will cause the quantum state to decohere into the correct answer hold promise.8
- Security and quantum cryptography is not yet fully developed.
- A lack of qubits prevents quantum computers from living up to their potential for impactful use. Researchers have yet to produce more than 128.7
According to global energy leader Iberdola, “quantum computers must have almost no atmospheric pressure, an ambient temperature close to absolute zero (-273°C) and insulation from the earth’s magnetic field to prevent the atoms from moving, colliding with each other, or interacting with the environment.”
“In addition, these systems only operate for very short intervals of time, so that the information becomes damaged and cannot be stored, making it even more difficult to recover the data.